Bebop-The dance elements gradually faded away into a true art of real music by the musicians Miles Davis, Bud Powell, Clifford Brown, Thelonious Monk, Sonny Stitt, and Ray Brown who wanted to steer away from the commercial type music. These musicians sought to use examples of the Jazz musicians of the past such as Lester young, Coleman Hawkins, Earl Hines and Art Tatum to expand Jazz music to another level.
At this time, Jazz music moved away from the basic melodic element of the piece to produce a more abstract chordal sound of dissonant tones, and chromatic patterns. The dissonant tones in Jazz music can be heard when two tones are played simultaneously in a clashing manner that can either sound strange or terrible depending on how the tones of the chord fit together as melody notes from a particular key. Clashing sounds can also occur from the use of lowered fifths and raised fourths.
The chromatic sound of the music allows the musician to freely play each of the twelve tones of the instruments without restriction. Musicians were able to play substitute chords as well as altered chords that could change the key of the piece in a whim. The change in rhythm became more discreetly energetic in sound which is used predominantly in Jazz music today. For instance, the cymbal was hit in beat of a 1+a 2+ a 3 +a 4 +a while the snare and bass drum are suddenly hit without warning.
Soul Jazz- From the late 1950’s, a style of music that derived from gospel and soul using the tenor saxophone, repetition with melodic groove hooks, and less intricate improvisation that occurred over the chordal harmonies. The music from the popular radio artist of the time known as Ramsey Lewis wrote “The In Crowd” a hit in 1965. Souls Jazz music signature was powerful bass lines and changing tempo of the song.
Modal- Bill Evans a pianist of this time made his mark in the making of new jazz music styles by using examples of major and minor medieval church modes which produced altered sounds between two notes. This music broke the rules by allowing the musicians to form new harmonies regardless of the key.
Jazz Fusion- Between the 1960’s and 1970’s, Jazz music infused with rock to the horror of Jazz lovers. The sound of Jazz fusion is complicated chordal harmonies, and oddly mixed meters with syncopating rhythms. The instruments used is similar to the instruments used in today’s bands such as the electronic guitar, electric bass guitar, electric piano and synthesizer. The musicians Miles Davis, Herbie Hancock, Chick Corea, Tony Williams and Frank Zappa and many others performed this music.
Smooth Jazz- From the 1970’s and 1980’s Jazz became a lighter pop style of fusion which begat muzak an electronic form of popular music on the radio. This music made popular by Kenny G., Najee and Grover Washington Jr. is played in many businesses to entertain customers.